Vocabulary Sheet

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APERTURE - The size of the lens opening through which light  passes.

AGITATE - To move a solution over the surface of film or paper during development so that fresh liquid comes into contact with the surface.

ASA - A numerical rating that describes the sensitivity of film to light.

BRACKET - To make several exposures, some greater and some less than the exposure that is calculated to be correct. Bracketing allows for error and permits selection of the best exposure after development.

BURN IN - To darken a specific area of a print by giving it additional printing exposure.

CAMERA - A picture taking device usually consisting of a light-tight box, a film holder, a shutter to admit a measured quantity of light and a lens to focus the image.

CASSETTE - A light-tight metal or plastic container that permits a roll of 35mm film to be loaded into a camera in the light.

CONTACT PRINTING - Placing a negative in contact with sensitized material, usually paper, and then passing light through the negative onto the material.

CONTRAST - The difference in darkness or density between one tone and another.

CROP - To trim the edges of an image, often to improve the composition.

DEPTH-OF-FIELD - The small range of allowable focusing error which will still produce an acceptable sharp image.

DEVELOPER - A chemical solution that changes the invisible, latent image produced during exposure into a visible one.

EMULSION - A light-sensitive coating applied to photographic films or papers. I consists of silver halide crystals and other chemicals suspended in gelatin.

EXPOSURE - The intensity of light multiplied by the length of time it falls on a light-sensitive material; specifically, the combination of shutter speed and aperture.

FILM FORMAT - Negative size, such as 35 millimeter, 2 1/4" x 2  1/4", and 4" x 5".

FIXER - A chemical solution that makes a photographic image insensitive to light.

F-STOP - The common term for the aperture setting of a lens.

SAFELIGHT - A light used in the darkroom during printing to provide general illumination without giving unwanted exposure.

SINGLE-LENS REFLEX - A camera in which the image formed by the  taking lens is reflected by a mirror onto a ground-glass screen for viewing. The mirror swings out of the way just before exposure; to let the image (or light) reach the film. Abbreviated SLR.

SHUTTER - A mechanism that opens and closes to admit light into a camera for a measured length of time.

SOLARIZATION - Reversed effect that occurs when film is grossly overexposed in the camera. The term is commonly used to refer to the Sabattier effect.

STOP BATH - An acid solution used between the developer and the fixer to stop the action of the developer and to preserve the effectiveness of the fixer.

WORKING SOLUTION - A chemical solution diluted to the correct strength for use.

DODGE - To lighten an area of a print by shading it during part of the printing exposure.

EASEL - Darkroom accessory used to hold printing paper flat and in place under the enlarger.

EQUIVALENT EXPOSURE - Alternative exposures settings (f-stops and shutter speeds) that will produce proper exposure.  The concept of equivalent exposure will be discussed at length during class.

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